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Microsoft Windows Windows logo - 2015 (also known as Windows, or Win, for short) is the line of graphical operating systems from Microsoft. The colors such as Red, Green, Blue and Yellow.

The current version, Windows 10, was released in 2015.
Windows Server 2016, developed concurrently with Windows 10, was released in 2016.

Versions

There have been many versions of Windows since its introduction in 1985, ranging from 16-bit to 64-bit, for both client and server applications.

Past

Current

History

Windows was first originated as an add-on to MS-DOS to provide a graphical user interface to the traditional command-line system.

Windows1screen

A typical Windows 1.0 desktop.

The first independent version of Microsoft Windows, version 1.0, released in November 1985, lacked a degree of functionality and achieved little popularity. Windows 2.0 was released in November 1987 and was slightly more popular than its predecessor. Windows 2.03 (release date January 1988) had introduced overlapping windows, which led to Apple Computer filing a suit against Microsoft alleging copyright infringement.

Windows 3.11 workspace

A typical Windows 3.11 Workgroup desktop.

Windows 3.0, released in 1990, was the first Windows version to achieve broad commercial success, selling 2 million copies in the first six months. It featured improvements to the user interface and to multitasking capabilities.

In July 1993, Microsoft released Windows NT based on IBM OS/2 technology (which Microsoft had been co-developing for several years prior). NT was targeted at businesses rather than home users, although these separate lines would later be combined.

In August 1995, Microsoft released Windows 95, which introduced the Start Menu which is still in use 15 years later. The next in line was Microsoft Windows 98 released in June, 1998. Substantially criticized for its slowness compared with Windows 95, many of its basic problems were later rectified with the release of Windows 98 Second Edition in 1999.

As part of its business line, Microsoft released Windows 2000 in February 2000, which was used for servers and workstations alike. The consumer version was Windows Me (Millennium Edition), released in September 2000. Windows Me attempted to implement a number of new technologies for Microsoft, most notably Universal Plug and Play, however the OS was substantially criticized for its lack of compatibility and stability.

In October 2001, Microsoft released Windows XP, a version built on the Windows NT kernel that also retained the consumer-oriented usability of Windows 95 and its successors. It shipped in two distinct editions, "Home" and "Professional", the former lacking many of the superior security and networking features of the Professional edition. Additionally, the "Media Center" edition was released in 2003, with an emphasis on support for DVD and TV functionality including program recording and a remote control.

Windows Server 2003 was introduced in April 2003, replacing the Windows 2000 line of server products with a number of new features and a strong focus on security; this was followed in December 2005 by Windows Server 2003 R2 (Release 2).

The long-awaited Windows Vista, codenamed Longhorn, was released in 2007 with 5 editions. Vista was built on the more recent and more stable platform of Server 2003. Windows Server 2008 was introduced in February 2008.

In October 2009, Windows 7 was launched as the successor to Vista, and is considered to be a lot more stable and usable than its predecessor. At the same time, Windows Server 2008 R2 was launched as an update to the server line.

Windows 8

A roadmap timeline slide shown by Microsoft at the 2009 Professional Developers Conference shows that Code Name "Windows 8" is scheduled to be released sometime around 2012.

Andrew Glass of Microsoft has confirmed Windows 8 will support Unicode 5.2.

Development and other aspects of Windows 8 have not been detailed in public, although job listings have mentioned improved functionality for file access in branch offices.

Interface

Windows xp desktop

A typical Windows XP desktop.

The most obvious feature of Windows is a window, or a container for other graphical objects. A Window in Microsoft Windows typically contains a status bar, title bar, minimize and maximize buttons, close button, and system menu (also called the windows menu or control menu). Another prominent feature since Windows 95 and NT 4.0 is the desktop, which holds various icons that the user can double-click to open. The Start Button and Start Menu, attached to the taskbar and typically below the desktop, gives users access to installed programs and many of the other features of the operating system.

Due to these and features, Windows makes it possible to perform most common tasks, some quite complex, with very little computer knowledge. Windows also comes with features to help the disabled through its accessibility options. Under Windows XP, these features include the Narrator, Magnifier and contrast display mode.

Logo Timeline

1985-2001 as Microsoft Windows 1.0x-2.x

Windows logo (1985-2001)

This logo is still on VMWare Player.







1988-2001 as Microsoft Windows 3.0

Win30logo

still on VMWare Player.








1991-2010 as Microsoft Windows 3.1-2000

1992-2000 Windows logo

This favicon logo is still on YouTube.








1995-Present

1995-2006 as Microsoft Windows 9x

1995-2000 and 2005 Windows logo

This logo is still on Amazon.com.





1991-2006 as Microsoft Windows 3.1-XP

2001-2011 Windows logo

This favicon logo is still in other stores in other locations.








2006-2012 as Windows Vista-7

Windows logo - 2006.svg




2012-2015 as Windows 8

Windows-8-logo

This logo is in some other stores.






2015-Present as Windows 10

Windows 10 Logo




Widespread Usage

Microsoft Windows is installed on the vast majority of personal computers. A July 2005 poll of Network Computing magazine readers found that 90% of their organizations used Microsoft's desktop operating systems . It has achieved enormous market penetration due to the domination of MS-DOS in the early days of PC compatible computers (IBM PC clones). It is also the primary platform for Microsoft Office and most non-console computer games.

The widespread use of Microsoft's operating system has benefited from not being tied to the success of one hardware manufacturer and from Microsoft's willingness to license the operating system to manufacturers. This is in contrast with Apple Computer, which does not license Mac OS X to other manufacturers, and Sun Microsystems, which did not license Solaris before it was made free and open-source. However, the wide spectrum of possible hardware permutations with Microsoft Windows is also a major source of computer problems because of hardware-software incompatibilities for consumers.

In the past, companies who wanted to be in the computer business had to create their own operating systems (such as the Amiga, BBC Micro or ZX Spectrum) or choose another OS; even an exclusive license with one vendor was significantly cheaper than developing and supporting a new operating system and software base.

Due to Microsoft's extensive licensing agreements with many computer vendors, Windows presently comes pre-installed on most computers as a bundled OEM version, making it the default or only choice for most of the market.

For some consumers, Windows is the only valid option for a computing environment, or it is mandated by their workplace; additionally, an unfamiliarity with other operating systems results in a lack of desire to switch to other operating systems. A significant percentage of computer users simply lack the technical knowledge needed to install an operating system.

Finally, the large base of software available exclusively for the Windows family of operating systems has become the single largest self-perpetuating reason for the popularity of Windows. In recent years, many companies have been started with the sole intention of releasing Windows software; the fact that there is already a large customer base in place is reason enough for such companies to spend their resources solely on Windows software development. As a result, the fact that many companies are supporting Windows exclusively is a self-reinforcing reason for customers to choose Windows.

Maintaining compatibility in a new release of Windows with this large collection of software designed to run on older flavors of Windows consumes a large part of the resources of the Windows development team.

Security

WindowsSecurity

The Windows XP Security Center supplied in Service Pack 2.

Security has been a major weakness of Windows for many years, and even Microsoft itself has been the victim of cracks and hacks . Due to the widespread usage of Windows on personal computers, many crackers (also known as black hat hackers) have targeted Windows rather than the lesser used operating systems such as Linux, Unix, Mac OS X, and FreeBSD. Some believe that due being designed for security in a multi-user and/or networked environment some other operating systems have a relatively small number of security issues. Windows was originally designed for ease-of-use on a single-user PC without a network connection, and did not have security features built in from the outset. Combined with occasionally flawed code (such as buffer overflows), Windows is a continuous target of worms and virus writers. Furthermore, until Service Pack 2 of Windows XP most versions of Windows were shipped with important security features disabled by default, and vulnerable albeit useful system services enabled by default. In June 2005, Bruce Schneier's Counterpane Internet Security reported that it had seen over 1,000 new viruses and worms in the previous six months.

Microsoft publicly admitted their ongoing security problems shortly after the turn of the century and now claims to regard security as their number one priority. As a result, Service Pack 2 for Windows XP greatly increased the security of the operating system. Microsoft releases security patches through its Windows Update service approximately once a month (usually the second Tuesday of the month), although critical updates are made available at shorter intervals when necessary. In Windows 2000 (Service Pack 3 and later), Windows Me, and Windows XP, updates can be automatically downloaded and installed if the user selects to do so.

As another step in their focus on security, Microsoft has released Windows Defender (formerly Windows AntiSpyware and Giant AntiSpyware) a free program designed to protect against spyware and other unwanted software.

A study conducted by Kevin Mitnick and marketing communications firm Avantgarde found that an unprotected and unpatched Windows XP system lasted only 4 minutes on the Internet before it was compromised . The AOL/National Cyber Security Alliance Online Safety Study of October 2004 determined that 80% of Windows users were infected by at least one spyware/adware product . Much documentation is available describing how to increase the security of Microsoft Windows products. Typical suggestions include deploying Microsoft Windows behind a hardware or software firewall, running anti-virus and anti-spyware software, and installing patches as they become available through Windows Update.

See also

References


External links

Official

Tips and documentation

Programming Microsoft Windows

Libraries

  • RSWL – free Reliable Software C++ Windows API library.

Reviews and evaluation

Other

Microsoft Windows family
VersionsComponentsHistory
Original
DOS-based
Windows 1.0Windows 2.0Windows 2.1 (Windows/286Windows/386) • Windows 3.0Windows 3.1x
Windows 9x
Windows 95Windows 98
Windows NT
Early versions
Windows NT 3.1Windows NT 3.5Windows NT 3.51Windows NT 4.0Windows 2000Windows 2000 Millennium Edition
Client
Windows XP (development) • Windows Vista (editionsdevelopment) • Windows 7 (editionsdevelopment) • Windows 8Windows 10
Windows Server
Server 2003Server 2008 (2008 R2) • HPC Server 2008Home ServerSmall Business ServerEssential Business ServerWindows Server 2012Windows Server 2016
Specialized
Windows EmbeddedWindows PEWindows Fundamentals for Legacy PCs
Mobile
Windows MobileWindows Phone
Upcoming
Cancelled
CairoNashvilleNeptuneOdyssey
Related
MetroMidoriOS/2Windows AeroWindows SetupWindows XP themesMicrosoft Plus!

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